Legal assistance and barriers to accessing legal services worldwide

A lawyer providing free Legal assistance to low income people


Legal assistance is a fundamental right that ensures individuals and communities have access to justice and protection under the law. In today’s world, legal assistance and barriers to accessing legal services remain critical issues for many people around the globe. Legal assistance and barriers refer to the various challenges individuals may face when seeking legal assistance or access to legal services. Unfortunately, many people worldwide face significant barriers to accessing justice, including financial, geographic, and cultural obstacles. 

According to the World Justice Project, over 5 billion people worldwide lack access to justice, and over 1 billion people cannot obtain justice for everyday problems. These barriers can prevent people from obtaining legal assistance and limit their ability to seek redress for legal issues or to enforce their legal rights. This article will explore the various barriers to accessing legal services worldwide and the efforts to overcome them so everyone can have equal access to justice and the rule of law. 

Access to justice

Access to justice refers to the ability of individuals and communities to access legal services and procedures to resolve legal disputes and protect their rights. Justice must be ensured for persons facing any legal problems. It is a fundamental human right. According to the 2020 report laid out by the Legal Services Board (LSB) on the Legal needs of individuals in England and Wales, approximately 29.8 million people in England and Wales have experienced at least one legal issue in the past four years. 

Without access to justice, individuals and communities may be unable to defend their rights, seek redress for grievances, or hold those in power accountable. A report by the World Justice Project shows that almost 4.5 billion people worldwide lack meaningful access to justice. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2015, includes Goal 16 on promoting peaceful and inclusive societies, providing access to justice for all, and building effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels.

What is the role of international organizations in promoting access to justice?

International organizations play a crucial role in promoting access to legal services globally. They provide funding and technical assistance to legal aid programs, advocate for legal reforms that promote access to justice, and monitor the implementation of legal and human rights standards. The United Nations, for example, has established several initiatives aimed at promoting access to justice, such as the UN Development Programme’s Access to Justice and Rule of Law program and the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals, which include targets related to access to justice and the rule of law. 

To ensure that everyone has equal access to justice, fair dispute resolution, human rights protection, and accountability systems must be in place. The UNDP’s Global Programme on Rule of Law and Human Rights works with governments, civil society organizations, and communities to provide meaningful access to justice, particularly for vulnerable groups. The UNDP is committed to strengthening its partnership with UNHCR to address protracted displacement and improve access to justice, safety, and security for refugees, displaced populations, and host communities through various measures, including mobile services, legal assistance, alternative dispute resolution, community policing, and national human rights institutions.

Similarly, the World Bank has taken various measures to promote access to justice, focusing on court reforms, legal services and legal aid, information dissemination and education, alternative dispute resolution, and public sector accountability. Additionally, the World Bank has completed various loan projects focused on judicial reform and is managing others. It has also provided approximately 90 grants and conducted nearly 29 assessments in the legal and judicial sectors. 

While much of this work has centred on establishing legal frameworks that promote investment and economic growth, the World Bank has also prioritized improving access to justice for ordinary people. This includes not only the ability to utilize courts but also broader participation in the individual and collective benefits of society’s delivery of equitable justice services.

Right to legal aid

The right to legal aid is a fundamental aspect of access to justice, recognised in international human rights law. This right ensures that individuals who cannot afford legal representation have access to legal aid, either free of charge or at a reduced cost. However, in many countries worldwide, legal aid is inadequate or non-existent, particularly for marginalised and vulnerable groups. Legal aid must be ensured so that every person accused of a crime gets a right to a fair trial.

Every country contains some committees and conventions through which a person’s right to legal aid is ensured. Such an example would be The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979, CEDAW ) which establishes legal protection of the rights of women on an equal basis with men through competent national tribunals and public institutions. However, the World Justice Project report shows that 90% of the population living in low-income countries may lack access to basic legal services.

Global legal aid gap

The global legal aid gap refers to the disparity between the need for legal aid and the actual provision of such services, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. According to the World Justice Project, more than five billion people worldwide lack access to adequate legal services, with many unable to afford legal representation or navigate complex legal systems.

This gap significantly impacts vulnerable populations, such as women, children, and refugees, who are often denied their legal rights due to a lack of access to legal services. This, in turn, can lead to a range of negative outcomes, including discrimination, exploitation, and social exclusion.

To address the legal aid gap, various initiatives have been launched, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the UN’s Access to Justice and Legal Aid in Africa campaign. These initiatives aim to increase access to legal aid services, promote legal empowerment, and strengthen legal systems to ensure everyone has access to justice.

However, despite these efforts, the legal aid gap persists, and much more needs to be done to bridge the divide between those in need of legal assistance and those who can provide it. This includes increasing funding for legal aid, improving the quality of legal services, and expanding legal aid services to reach more people.

Social and cultural barriers to the legal system

Access to justice is a fundamental right of every individual, irrespective of their social or cultural background and an important aspect of the criminal justice system. Still, most people have difficulty obtaining free legal aid. The United Nations Development Programme shows that up to 80% of the legal needs of poor and marginalised populations worldwide go unmet. It is essential to continue addressing legal assistance issues and barriers to ensure that everyone, regardless of their background, can access and protect their legal rights.

Social status plays a significant role in determining an individual’s access to justice. It can be problematic in countries where the legal system is complex, and legal representation is necessary to navigate it. Furthermore, the lack of access to legal services often results in individuals being unable to pursue justice or redress, resulting in a denial of their fundamental rights. Cultural beliefs can also create barriers to accessing legal services worldwide. In some cultures, individuals may be discouraged from seeking legal assistance due to cultural stigmas or shame. Lack of legal aid can also arise due to a shortage of lawyers. 

According to the International Bar Association, only about 170,000 lawyers serve a population of over 1 billion in Africa. Below are the mentioned factors that could create an obstacle in obtaining justice and equity:


Poverty remains a significant legal barrier to accessing legal services worldwide. Despite recognising the right to legal assistance and the availability of various legal aid programs, many people living in poverty still cannot access legal services due to financial constraints. Legal services can be expensive, and many people living in poverty cannot afford the fees charged by lawyers. The World Bank conducted research in 2018, showing that about 40% of the population worldwide has difficulty finding a lawyer.


Many people face discrimination based on their race, gender, sexuality, or other factors, making it difficult or impossible for them to access legal assistance when needed. One of the main barriers to accessing legal services is the lack of diversity among lawyers and legal professionals. Many people feel more comfortable seeking legal assistance from someone who understands their background and experiences, but the legal profession remains largely homogenous.

This can make it difficult for people from marginalised communities to access legal services, as they may feel excluded or intimidated by a legal system that does not reflect their experiences. Discrimination can also take other forms, such as language barriers, unequal treatment by the legal system, or inadequate legal education for those from marginalised communities.

Legal Education

Many people who need legal assistance may not be aware of their legal rights, or they may not have the knowledge or skills to navigate the legal system. Without a basic understanding of the legal system, many people may not know where to turn for legal assistance or how to navigate complex legal procedures. Legal documents can be difficult to understand, and complex legal language can make it difficult for people without legal training to understand their legal rights and obligations.

Financial constraint

Financial constraint is a significant legal barrier to accessing legal services worldwide. Legal fees can be expensive, and many people living in poverty may not afford the costs of hiring a lawyer or accessing other legal resources. A recent survey by the International Bar Association found that nearly 60% of businesses surveyed had experienced difficulties in finding and affording legal services in the past year.

Physical accessibility

Accessing legal services worldwide can be challenging, as different laws, regulations, and physical barriers may prevent people from seeking the legal assistance they need. People may face physical accessibility issues in areas with a lack of public transportation or wheelchair access. 

Cultural differences

In many cultures, seeking legal assistance or involving the legal system in personal matters is seen as taboo or socially stigmatised. Cultural differences can also present language barriers for people seeking legal assistance. Many legal documents and court proceedings are conducted in languages that may not be the native language of the person seeking legal assistance. This can make it difficult for people to understand the legal process and their legal rights. According to a study conducted in the United States, 20% of the population speaks a language other than English at home, but only about 2% of lawyers are proficient in languages other than English.

Access to technology

Access to technology can also be a legal barrier to legal assistance and barriers, particularly for individuals who do not have access to the internet or digital devices. This can prevent them from seeking legal aid, accessing online legal resources, or participating in virtual court hearings.

Initiatives for increasing legal assistance

There are many initiatives aimed at increasing legal assistance and reducing barriers to accessing legal services for individuals worldwide. Legal institutions and legal aid programs often collaborate to develop solutions that address the various barriers to access to legal assistance. These initiatives may include legal clinics, online legal resources, pro bono legal services, and much more. In addition to these initiatives, legal institutions and legal aid programs may also increase awareness of legal assistance and barriers to accessing legal services among individuals in their communities. Different countries have different numbers of lawyers who can provide legal services to marginalised communities. Eg. According to a 2019 report, the United States had the highest number of lawyers per capita in the world. 

Legal aid programs

These programs provide free or low-cost legal assistance to individuals who would otherwise not have access to legal services due to financial constraints. Legal aid programs can help individuals navigate complex legal issues, protect their legal rights, and ensure that they are able to access justice and fair representation. Legal Aid Programs would include initiatives like Legal Action Worldwide, the Disability Law Service in the UK, ARCH Disability Law Centre in Canada, the Disability Discrimination Legal Service in Australia, and the National Disability Rights Network in the United States. 

Examples of Legal Aid Programs

Legal Aid Programs include people from all around the world. Some examples of legal aid programs are as under:

  • In India, the National Legal Services Authority was established to oversee the delivery of services nationally and to disburse funds to State and District Legal Services Authorities and NGOs to provide legal aid services.
  • In the United States, the Legal Services Corporation funds legal aid organisations to provide civil legal assistance to low-income Americans.
  • In Canada, the government has established a Legal Aid Ontario program to provide legal aid to low-income individuals.

Pro bono services

Legal assistance and barriers to accessing it are significant issues worldwide, particularly for low-income individuals and disadvantaged communities. Pro bono legal services are provided by lawyers and law firms without charge, or at a reduced cost, to those who cannot afford to pay for legal representation. One example of pro bono service is International Refugee Assistance Project (IRAP), which provides legal assistance and legal support to refugees and displaced persons around the world, helping them to navigate complex legal systems.

Legal digital services

Legal digital services can help overcome the barriers that prevent people from accessing legal assistance, particularly for those who cannot visit a law firm in person due to distance or financial constraints. Many people search for lawyers online, and the search volume for such a type depends on the country and the type of lawyer that you are looking for. Various law firms reduce the gaps between the victim and the lawyer. Also, various digital legal technology is used by firms while connecting a lawyer with the client.

One such example is LegaMart. Legamart offers the best solution for your issues with any legal issues. They have a network of excellent lawyers who can help you get started and provide professional guidance and legal advice on legal assistance and barriers to accessing legal services worldwide. Legamart offers various services, such as quick meetings with lawyers to discuss legal problems or obtain advice on business transactions or any other legal matter. Depending on your requirement, you can choose from a dozen lawyers in the directory of Legamart.

Community legal education

Community legal education (CLE) programs provide legal education and information to community members, empowering them to understand their legal rights and responsibilities and access legal assistance when needed. CLE programs help to address legal assistance and barriers by increasing legal awareness and literacy, particularly among disadvantaged communities. A good example of CLE is the Law and Justice Foundation of New South Wales in Australia. The Foundation provides legal education and information to the general public, particularly to disadvantaged communities.

Public defender systems

It means government-aided institutions that will hire lawyers to provide legal aid systems at little cost to low-income citizens. Public defenders work on criminal cases, civil cases, and other legal matters, and they help to protect the legal rights of their clients. One example of a public defender system is the United States Federal Public Defender Program. This program provides legal representation to individuals charged with federal crimes who cannot afford to hire an attorney. 

Contract service systems

Contract service systems are typically online platforms or applications that provide contract templates, legal guidance, and other services to help individuals and businesses navigate the contract drafting process. These systems can help to reduce the cost of legal services, making it easier for individuals and small businesses to access the legal assistance they need. One example of a contract service system is LegalZoom, which offers legal services to individuals and small businesses, including contract drafting and review.

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Legal Services

The social isolation measures that were imposed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic seemed to have encouraged justice systems and legal aid agencies to embrace the use of technology as an alternative to in-person interactions. However, it was evident that limited resources and makeshift measures compromised the ability to sustain regular levels of access to justice during the period, significantly impacting individuals’ ability to engage with the legal system.

Furthermore, the economic recession that resulted from the compulsory social distancing measures heightened concerns about potential reductions in funding for legal aid. During the period, merely 8% of justice systems were operating under normal conditions, while 92% of judicial authorities postponed or halted all but the most pressing legal matters. In several nations, serious apprehensions arose regarding the ability of legal systems to preserve the rule of law during the pandemic and prevent undue violations of civil liberties, whether by private individuals, organizations, or governmental authorities.

On the other hand, the COVID-19 Law Lab initiative was introduced by the World Health Organization on July 22, 2020, to gather and disseminate legal documents from more than 190 countries worldwide. The initiative is designed to assist countries in establishing and executing robust legal frameworks for managing the pandemic effectively. The primary objective is to guarantee that laws prioritize protecting people’s health and well-being while adhering to established international human rights norms.


In a world that values justice and equality, legal assistance and barriers to accessing legal services continue to pose significant challenges for individuals and communities worldwide. Despite progress in recent years, many people still face significant barriers that hinder their access to legal help. These barriers can take many forms, from financial constraints to geographic isolation and cultural differences. However, the good news is that efforts to overcome these obstacles are ongoing, and there is hope for a future where legal assistance is accessible to all. 

By understanding these challenges, we can address them and ensure that access to justice is a reality for everyone. Whether through advocacy, policy change, or community organising, each of us has a role to play in breaking down the barriers to accessing legal services. Let us work together to make this vision a reality and ensure that legal assistance and access to justice are available to everyone, regardless of their circumstances or background. 

Frequently Asked Questions

What is legal aid, and who is eligible to receive it?

Legal aid is a service provided by lawyers and legal professionals to individuals who cannot afford legal representation. Eligibility requirements for legal aid vary by country and jurisdiction, but generally, low-income individuals or those facing serious legal issues such as eviction or domestic violence are eligible.

What is the role of international organizations in promoting access to legal services?

International organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank play a critical role in promoting access to legal services by providing funding and technical assistance to legal aid programs and advocating for legal reforms that promote access to justice.

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